Google Translate

Google Translate

Google Translate is a free multilingual statistical and neural machine translation service developed by Google, to translate text and websites from one language into another. It offers a website interface, a mobile app for Android and iOS, and an application programming interface that helps developers build browser extensions and software applications. As of April 2020, Google Translate supports 109 languages at various levels.

Launched in April 2006 as a statistical machine translation service, it used United Nations and European Parliament documents and transcripts to gather linguistic data. Rather than translating languages directly, it first translates text to English and then pivots to the target language in most of the language combinations it posits in its grid,with a few exceptions including Catalan-Spanish. During a translation, it looks for patterns in millions of documents to help decide on which words to choose and how to arrange them in the target language. In November 2016, Google announced that Google Translate would switch to a neural machine translation engine - Google Neural Machine Translation (GNMT) - which translates "whole sentences at a time, rather than just piece by piece. It uses this broader context to help it figure out the most relevant translation, which it then rearranges and adjusts to be more like a human speaking with proper grammar". Originally only enabled for a few languages in 2016, GNMT is used in all 109 languages in the Google Translate roster as of 2020, except for Kyrgyz, Latin, and the Belarusian, Maltese and Sundanese to other languages pairs.



DOAB is a searchable database of peer reviewed scientific monographs that have been made accessible by academic publishers in open access. DOAB contains the metadata of 'free to share' e-books and provides direct links to the full text of the publications on the websites of the publishers. The collection covers all disciplines but focuses in particular on humanities, law and social sciences. All books in DOAB have a full open access license, making them ‘free to share’.

The primary aim of DOAB is to increase discoverability of Open Access books. Academic publishers are invited to provide metadata of their Open Access books to DOAB. Metadata will be harvestable in order to maximize dissemination, visibility and impact. Aggregators can integrate the records in their commercial services and libraries can integrate the directory into their online catalogues, helping scholars and students to discover the books. The directory is open to all publishers who publish academic, peer reviewed books in Open Access and should contain as many books as possible, provided that these publications are in Open Access and meet academic standards.

The Directory of Open Access Books is a service of DOAB Foundation. DOAB Foundation is a non-profit legal entity under Dutch law (‘stichting’), established by OAPEN Foundation and OpenEdition. The Foundation is based at the National Library in The Hague.

DOAB was established by OAPEN Foundation in close cooperation with Lars Bjørnshauge and Salam Baker Shanawa (director of SemperTool), who were also responsible for the development of the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). SemperTool develops and maintains the DOAB sys

OAPEN Foundation is a member of OASPA (http://oaspa.org), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. OAPEN works closely with OASPA to establish membership guidelines for OA book publishers (http://oaspa.org/membership/membership-criteria/).

SOURCE: https://www.doabooks.org

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